**Recent Events:**

The recent changes in the Navyâ€™s guidelines reporting of UFOs (see Fig. 1) is welcome, as the Navy Times Op-Ed states it, it will provide much sophisticated data to eliminate the known aerial and â€śUFOâ€ť events from those that are truly unknown UFO events.

Fig. 1: The Navy is reportedly drafting guidelines on how to report UFO sightings, like the apparent one here, seen in a declassified Department of Defense video. (DoD screenshot). Source: Navy Times.

However, from this reporting change, we can infer that our military does not have this type of advanced technology. Noting that Boeing is working for the Air Force on the X-37B (see Fig. 2) billed as the â€śworldâ€™s newest and most advanced re-entry spacecraftâ€ť we can infer that nobody on this planet has the theoretical models either in physics or engineering, to develop UFO type spacecraft.

Fig. 2: X-37B (Source: commons.wikimedia.org)

Unfortunately, real UFOs (see Fig. 1) prove that our physics is inadequate. It cannot deliver such technologies. I know because I spent the last 20 years researching the foundations of physics, not by chasing other peopleâ€™s theories but by re=examining the empirical data. In 2007 I discovered the elegantly simple universal formula for gravitational, mechanical, and electromagnetic forces g=Ď„.c^{2}, where g is the acceleration, tau Ď„ is effectively the change in clock rates divided by the height between the two clocks, and c^{2} is the velocity of light squared. Not that there is no mass in this equation. Something that our RSQ (Relativity, String & Quantum) theories, to date, have not been able to achieve.

So, where do we go from here?

**A Brief Look at Why Contemporary Physics Cannot Deliver**

Antigravity, the laymanâ€™s term, implies that gravity can be neutralized, however, its scientific term, gravity modification, implies that gravity can be modified in any direction.

The general principle is that for any motion to occur two considerations must be present, modulation and vectoring. Modulation relates to the magnitude of the velocity required, and vectoring relates to the direction required of this velocity.

In gravity, modulation is achieved by the magnitude of the mass source. The greater the mass source the greater the acceleration and thus the velocity of the falling object. Vectoring is achieved by the shape of the gravitational field such that all objects fall towards the mass source. With a moving electron in a magnetic field modulation is achieved by the strength of this magnetic field, and vectoring is achieved by the direction of the electronâ€™s motion relative to this magnetic field.

In empty space with nothing else in it, the gravitationally distorted spacetime causes an object to accelerate towards the mass source. That is, the primary effect in Nature is that the distortions in spacetime determines acceleration. This appears to be action at a distance from the perspective of the mass source. It is not from the perspective of the falling object, as the object obeys the laws of physics in its local space per the gravitational distortion.

Given that gravity passes through all matter, suggests that this distortion in spacetime distorts all particles such as to behave in a manner required by its local spacetime. That is, we have disengaged the mass source from its field effects, acceleration.

Now that we have disengaged the source from the field effect, we can now replace the mass source with a technology, and still have General Relativity intact. However, per quantum theoryâ€™s force carrier particles, these particles only appear to be force carriers because these particles obey the properties of spacetime in their local space. That is why gravity passes through all matter.

What is the proof? g=Ď„.c^{2}, is the proof that something is amiss with our contemporary physics. This elegantly simple equation unifies all macro forces (gravity, mechanical & electromagnetic) without any additional theory. I proved all this mathematically, and for those of you who are interested in reading my 20-years of peer reviewed publications, here is the link. Sorry, I cannot get published in mainstream journals because I do not have a PhD in Physics â€“ but who better than an outsider to take a fresh look at the data?

By the way, Ben Rich, Director of Skunkworks, Lockheed Martin, was wrong when he said â€ś...we found an error in the equations...â€ť as gravity modification cannot be done with current theories. Further, gravity modification cannot lead to interstellar propulsion as that breaks a fundamental property of Nature, Lorentz-FitzGerald Transformations (LFT). To achieve interstellar propulsion requires a knowledge of how probabilities are implemented in Nature - a question none of the quantum or string theories ask.

**Engineering Design Principles**

To build UFO type engines requires (i) at least a new type of physics, (ii) engineering design principles that provide guidance for consistent repeatability and (iii) new engine designs. The first I have completed over a period of 20 years, and you can look up my papers at the link provided above. Letâ€™s address the second in this section.

Fig. 3: Diagrammatic representation of a gravitational Ni field (Source: Adapted from commons.wikimedia.org)

In physics we are taught that these velocities are a function of time and distance, but most often we ignore the distance behavior, the spatial gradient of velocities. From the empirical data I have defined the Non-Inertia (Ni) field as the spatial distribution of real or latent velocities. Gravity is a Ni field (see Fig. 3) with latent tangential velocities that can be observed as orbital velocities with an orbiting object. The spatial gradient of these velocities is evident by the decreasing orbital velocities as you get further away from the mass source. The acceleration present is in the direction of increasing spatial velocity gradient and is governed by the equation g=Ď„.c^{2}. The same can be shown to be true for electromagnetic and mechanical forces.

That is, the key to developing new types of engines is to create a technology that generates a Ni field. For this we need engineering design principles. Dr. Podkletnovâ€™s 1992 (Physica C) and 1997 (arXiv.org) experiments (see Fig. 4), demonstrated small changes in the weight of an object above the experiment. He used a spinning bi-layer ceramic disc. The top side is an electrified superconducting magnet and the bottom layer is a non-superconducting (center tilted disc in Fig. 4). We can now lay down the engineering design principles.

Fig. 4: Podkletnovâ€™s experiment. (Source: Solomon, 2011)

The deconstruction of Dr. Podkletnovâ€™s experiments shows that, to build a force field engine, a Ni Field is required that obeys four design rules. These rules are:

**i.** The field effects must result in a spatial gradient of latent or real velocities. These velocities are latent with gravitational and electromagnetic fields, and real with mechanical structures such as centripetal motion. The Ni field exist when the horizontal rotating magnetic field crosses the vertical electric field lines, creating a vertical virtual spatial gradient of electromagnetic and physical velocities.

The electromagnetic velocity *v* is governed by

where m is mass of device, B an E are magnetic and electric field strengths, respectively, at any height d above the ceramic disc. The net velocity v_{n} is the velocity of disc spin v_{s} along the radius r of the disc plus or minus the electromagnetic velocity v depending on the direction of the spin velocity. The Ni field is determined by v_{n}. If v_{n} increases with d the acceleration is upward, if not it is downward.

**ii.** The field must be asymmetrical, and non-cancelling. There are no net forces in charged particles and naturally occurring magnetic fields as these fields are symmetrical. This is observed in the asymmetrical ovoid-like shaped particles falling in gravitational field as the near side, to the gravitational source, is more contracted (stronger gravitational field) than the far side (weaker gravitational field). In the Podkletnov experiments this is achieved by the asymmetrical structure of the electrified magnetic field. The magnetic field on the top side of the disc is exposed to the electric field while on the bottom side is locked within the non-superconducting layer and not exposed to any electric field.

**iii.** Vectoring is provided by direction of the spatial gradient of velocities. In gravitational fields, this vectoring is along the radii of the field. With the electron moving in a magnetic field, this vectoring is derived from the direction of the magnetic field acting on the moving spherical shape of the electronâ€™s electric field. In Dr. Podkletnovâ€™s experiments the Ni field is determined by v_{n}. If v_{n} increases with d the acceleration is upward, if not it is downward.

**iv.** Modulation is provided by the field strengths. In gravitational fields modulation is accomplished by the amount of matter, with mass as a proxy for this quantity of this matter and by the radius of the gravitating source. In the electron moving in a magnetic field, this modulation is derived from the magnetic field strength.

**Building a Test Device**

This section describes a simplified version of the Podkletnov experiment, a Podkletnov-type device, a rotating magnetic field relative to the orthogonal electric field. As we are interested in generating an Ni field, superconducting magnets are not necessary, and can be replaced with regular magnets. Fig. 5 depicts the top view of an arrangement of non-superconducting neodymium magnets on a steel base plate disc of about 24 cm across. Depending on the magnet strengths, between 6 to 12 magnets should be sufficient.

Fig. 5: Arrangement of magnets on a steel plate for a Podkletnov-type device (Source: Solomon, 2011)

Here is the link (MS Excel macro worksheet) to calculate an approximate number of magnets required depending on both field strengths and spin. As some calculations require values greater than 15 decimal places, X Numbers macros, an Excel Add-In is required. (Remember to load X Numbers before loading this worksheet).

On top of this is an aluminum foil electrode to isolate the electric field to the top side of the magnets. This allows for the top side magnetic fields to interact with the electric field. Some distance above this arrangement (about 2 cm) is another flat disc electrode, either steel or aluminum. Aluminum is preferred as it is lighter. See Fig. 6 for the cross-sectional view. A high voltage (50,000V?) needs to be applied across the electrode plates but be careful not to exceed the breakdown voltage. The base plate with magnets should be spun at 5,000 rpm or as close as is possible with stationary aluminum electrode discs.

Fig. 6: Cross-sectional view of a simplified Podkletnov-type device. (Source: Solomon, 2019)

Will this work? Check out Chekurkovâ€™s experiment. It works. I am very surprised at how he managed to arrive at a simplified version of Podkletnov-type device. That is genius. It took me 20-years to rethink the physics and arrive at a set of engineering design principles, and we have that now to determine alternative designs, and address issues of lateral motion and stability.

The modeling (see Model tab in Excel file provided for the model), shows, Fig. 7, that (i) the closer the electrode plates are to the magnets the stronger the effect, (ii) the greater the spin the greater the effect.

Fig. 7: Modeling results (Source: Solomon, 2011 - 2019)

Fig. 8, shows an even simpler design by replacing the lower electrode plate with the steel plate on which the magnets are placed, but I have not tested how a rotationally distorted electric field would affect the outcome. I would appreciate it if some of my readers would build, test this device that is simpler than Chekurkovâ€™s, and give me your feedback.

Fig. 8: Simplest Podkletnov-type design (Source: Solomon, 2019)

**Brief Bio**

Ben Solomon in the Principal Investigator at the Xodus One Foundation. In 1999 Solomon invented an electric circuit, with no moving parts, that could change its own weight. That told him something was amiss with our current understanding of the laws of physics and this started his 20-year journey into the foundations of physics. Since then he has published more than 20 peer reviewed journal/conference papers on the foundations of physics. He expects to put new engine design on silicon chips - Engines-On-Chip.